- Opportunity to participate without interrupting others during animated discussion
- Structure to manage impulse control (i.e. taking up too much airtime)
- Opportunity to learn to contribute to group discussion without becoming overwhelmed
- Acknowledgement of the difference between meaningful participation and simply talking a lot
- Recognition that calling attention to oneself can be anxiety provoking
- Use a variety of different turn-taking approaches:
- Popcorn style (anyone can jump in)
- Raised hands with consideration for those who speak less often
- Round-robin with the option to pass
- Written submission of questions (e.g. live chat or email as the class is unfolding)
- Encourage students to write down intended contributions so that they can listen without being distracted by their own thoughts.
- Ensure students have the opportunity to prepare their contributions ahead of time (i.e. participation flows from readings).